Comprehensive Overview of International Project Management: Part – 2

Comprehensive Overview of International Project Management: Part – 2

Methodologies Shaping the Landscape of International Project Management

In the first part of this blog, we embarked on a journey into the realm of International Project Management (IPM), uncovering its origins, challenges, and key analytical tools. Now, in the second part of our exploration, we delve deeper into the methodologies that are instrumental in shaping the landscape of IPM, providing project managers with the strategies they need to navigate the complexities of global collaboration.

Evolution of Strategies in International Project Management

The evolution of methodologies in IPM reflects the need for adaptability in the face of diverse cultures, regulatory environments, and market dynamics. While traditional project management methodologies lay the foundation, a range of specialized approaches has emerged to cater to the intricacies of international projects.

Cultural Adaptation Methodology

One of the cornerstones of successful IPM is the Cultural Adaptation Methodology. This approach recognizes that projects operating on an international scale need to integrate local customs and practices to create a harmonious environment. This means that project managers must not only be proficient in project management techniques but also be adept at cross-cultural communication and negotiation.

For instance, when overseeing a construction project in a foreign country, understanding the local construction practices, legal regulations, and workforce dynamics becomes paramount. Adapting the project plan to align with these factors can lead to smoother execution and enhanced collaboration.

Glocalization Approach

The term “glocalization” embodies the fusion of “global” and “local.” In IPM, the glocalization approach entails tailoring project strategies to align with both global objectives and local needs. This approach recognizes that a one-size-fits-all solution does not suffice in international projects, as different regions often have distinct preferences and requirements.

Imagine a software development project aimed at catering to a diverse global market. The glocalization approach would involve developing a core software product while allowing for customizations based on regional preferences, languages, and cultural sensitivities. This not only enhances market penetration but also demonstrates respect for local norms.

Integrated Cross-Cultural Communication

In the realm of IPM, communication transcends mere information exchange—it becomes a strategic tool for fostering collaboration and mitigating conflicts. Integrated Cross-Cultural Communication is a methodology that emphasizes the proactive management of cross-cultural communication challenges.

This methodology encourages project managers to be mindful of communication styles, non-verbal cues, and even time zone differences. By embracing communication techniques that resonate with different cultures, project managers can establish rapport, bridge gaps, and create an environment of mutual understanding. This can greatly enhance team cohesion and reduce the risk of misunderstandings.

Dynamic Risk Management

Risk management takes on a unique flavor in IPM, where risks can emerge from a myriad of sources, including cultural misunderstandings, regulatory changes, and geopolitical shifts. The Dynamic Risk Management methodology acknowledges that the risk landscape is in a constant state of flux and requires continuous vigilance.

Incorporating this methodology involves not only identifying potential risks but also developing strategies to monitor, mitigate, and adapt to evolving risk scenarios. Project managers must cultivate a keen sense of foresight, leveraging scenario planning and contingency strategies to tackle uncertainties that span international boundaries.


As the world continues to shrink due to globalization, International Project Management emerges as a realm that demands innovation, adaptability, and a nuanced understanding of global dynamics. The methodologies discussed in this article represent the culmination of years of experience, insights, and experimentation.

In the intricate dance of international collaboration, project managers serve as orchestrators, guiding diverse teams towards shared objectives. Whether it’s embracing cultural diversity, customizing strategies for local markets, mastering cross-cultural communication, or navigating a dynamic risk landscape, IPM practitioners stand as stewards of effective global projects.

As we conclude this two-part exploration, remember that International Project Management is more than a mere discipline—it’s a dynamic journey that challenges conventional wisdom and rewards those who dare to venture beyond borders. For a comprehensive understanding of IPM, don’t miss out on the insights shared in this article: What is International Project Management?

Stay vigilant, stay adaptable, and embrace the transformative power of International Project Management. Your journey has only just begun.

For Part 1 of this Article Please refer here: Comprehensive Overview of International Project Management: Part – 1

Structural Damage Assessment Techniques

Damage Assessment:

Detection of damage to structures has recently received considerable attention from the viewpoint of maintenance and safety assessment. In this respect, the vibration characteristics of buildings have been applied consistently to obtain a damage index of the whole building, but it has not been established as a practical method until now. It is reasoned that this is perhaps due to restrictions on the experiment, use of an improper method, and lack of inspection opportunity for the structures. In addition, in the case of large-scale structures such as buildings, many variables to be considered for the analysis contribute to a large number of degrees of freedom, and this can also be a considerable problem for the analysis. A practical method for the detection of structural damage using the first natural frequency and mode shape of the building is proposed in this paper. The effectiveness of the proposed method is verified by numerical analysis and experimental tests. From the results, it is observed that the severity and location of the damage can be estimated with a relatively small error by using modal properties of the building.

Damage Assessment can be carried out broadly based on two techniques namely Destructive and Non-destructive Testing Analysis.

Destructive Testing or Destructive Physical Analysis: 

Destructive testing (or destructive physical analysis, DPA) tests are carried out to the specimen’s failure, in order to understand a specimen’s performance or material behaviour under different loads. These tests are generally much easier to carry out, yield more information, and are easier to interpret than nondestructive testing. Destructive testing is most suitable, and economical, for objects which will be mass-produced, as the cost of destroying a small number of specimens is negligible.

Types of Destructive Testing:

  • Crash Tests
  • Shake Table Test

Non Destructive testing:

There is no strength test, which provides the requisite information on concrete in-situ without damaging the concrete. These and other drawbacks of destructive test methods have led to the development of nondestructive methods of testing. Non-destructive methods are quick and can be performed both in the laboratory and in-situ with convenience.

Types of Non-Destructive Testing:

Penetration Tests:

The Windsor probe is generally considered to be the best means of testing penetration. It consists of powder-actuated gun or driver, hardened alloy probes, loaded cartridges, a depth gauge for measuring the penetration of probes and other related equipment. A probe of diameter 6.5 mm and length of 80 mm, is driven into the concrete by means of a precision powder charge. Depth of penetration provides an indication of the compressive strength of the concrete. Although calibration charts are provided by the manufacturer, the instrument should be calibrated for the type of concrete and the type and size of aggregate used.

Rebound Tests: Schmidt Test Hammer:

The rebound hammer is a surface hardness tester for which an empirical correlation has been established between strength and rebound number. The only known instrument to make use of the rebound principle for concrete testing is the Schmidt hammer, which weighs about 1.8 kg and is suitable for both laboratory and fieldwork. It consists of a spring-controlled hammer mass that slides on a plunger within a tubular housing. The hammer is forced against the surface of the concrete by the spring and the distance of rebound is measured on a scale. The test’s surface can be horizontal, vertical, or at any angle but the instrument must be calibrated in the position.

Pull-Out Techniques:

Is more authentic than the concrete core test. A specially shaped steel rod with one end enlarged is embedded in concrete in the form-work. After the concrete hardens the rod is pulled out and in so doing it comes out with a block of concrete. The pullout force determined by a hollow tension ram is related to the compressive strength of concrete.

Concrete Core Test:

Concrete cores are drilled from the structure and are tested in a compression testing machine. The average equivalent cube strength of the cores is equal to at least 85% of the cube strength of the concrete specified for the corresponding age.

Radioactive Tests:

Concrete absorbs X-rays and -rays passing through it and the degree of absorption depends on the density of concrete. These rays, while passing through concrete, are partly absorbed and partly scattered. The scattered radiation can be shielded from the measuring device and the density of concrete is determined by the degree of absorption of the rays traversing a direct path of known length. Radium and radio-cobalt are used as a source of rays. Radium has the advantage that its activity can be regarded as constant since it takes 1000 to 2000 years for its activity to be reduced by half. However, radio-cobalt whose activity reduces to half in just five years is preferred because it is quite cheap.

Maturity Concept (Test on Fresh Concrete):

Is based on the principle that concretes having equal maturities will have equal compressive strengths. The maturity of the in-situ concrete at the early ages can be determined with the aid of an instrument known as maturity meter. This is used to determine the earliest safe time for removal of formwork. The results are authentic provided the concretes have an initial temperature between 15-26°C and there is no loss of moisture during the period of curing.

Ultrasonic Test: The ultrasonic pulse velocity method as described for green concrete can also be used to determine the strength of hardened concrete. The flaws, quality of concrete, reinforcement, moisture content, the temperature of concrete materials, etc. affect the pulse velocity and suitable adjustments should be made in evaluating the concrete strength.

Selection of Test Method:

  1. The availability and reliability of the calibration charts
  2. The effects and acceptability of surface damage
  3. The accuracy desired
  4. Economic consideration
  5. Practical limitations such as member size and type, surface conditions and access to test points.

Non-destructive methods have following distinct advantages over the prevalent destructive methods of testing.

  1. The measurement can be done on concrete in-situ and thus representative samples are not required. In the destructive method of testing the change in the quality of concrete has to be studied on a long-term basis with respect to curing or deterioration due to certain causes. A large number of specimens are required which could be tested to destruction, at various ages. Since it cannot be guaranteed that all specimens are of the same quality, the results obtained may not be very reliable.
  2. Non-destructive testing makes its possible to study the variation in the quality of concrete with time and external influences.
  3. In N.D.T. method the concrete is not loaded to destruction. Its quality is judged by measuring certain of its physical properties, which are related to its quality.
  4. In N.D.T. there is no wastage of material as in destructive methods of testing.

How Structural Arches are built

Definition of Structural Arch:

An arch is a curved structural form that carries loads around an opening, transferring them around the profile of the arch to abutments, jambs or piers on either side.

Working Principles of Arches:

Arches are compressive structures, that is, there are no tensile stresses. They are self-supporting, stabilized by the force of gravity acting on their weight to hold them in compression. This makes them very stable and efficient, capable of larger spans and supporting greater loads than horizontal beams.

The downward load of an arch must be transferred to its foundations. The outward thrust exerted by an arch at its base must be restrained, either by its own weight or the weight of supporting walls, by buttressing or foundations, or by an opposing tie between the two sides. The outward thrust increases as the height, or rise, of the arch decreases.

All compression forces acting on the Arch forms a Thrust Line. This Thrust line forms a parabolic shape. The Arch is said to be stable when the Thrust line formed is contained within the Arch similarly the Arch fails structurally when a part of Thrust line falls outside the Arch. (Thrust Line formed in a Jack Arch in the example below)

Construction of an Arch:

Arches are generally constructed using materials which can resist compression forces better such as masonry and concrete.

The construction of traditional masonry arches is dependent on the arrangement of the bricks, blocks or stone over the opening. Wedge-shaped blocks, called voussoirs, are set flank-to-flank with the upper edge being wider than the lower edge. Downward pressure on the arch has the effect of forcing the voussoirs together instead of apart. The voussoir that is positioned in the centre of the arch is known as the keystone.

This arrangement means that the arch is self-supporting, but temporary supports from below, usually in the form of timber centres, must be provided until the keystone has been set in place.

The interior, lower curve of the arch is known as the intrados. The exterior, upper curve of the arch is known as the extrados. The spring, or springing line, is the point from which the arch starts to rise from its vertical supports.

Based on different profiles of arches which can be created using the available construction materials. Below mentioned are the types of trusses (Architectural Categorisation)